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Below, you'll find a list of some of the more common cycle-related terms. This is by no means an exhaustive list, and will be kept up-to-date so if you think there's a term missing, please let us know.

Close pass
Any maneouvre where the vehicle overtaking leaves less than the recommended 1.5m of space between them and the cycle. Most often applied to those where the gap is approximately a foot or less. This can be very unnerving for the cyclist.
Also the name of a nationwide police operation targeting drivers who endanger cyclists in this way.
See Primary
See Primary
A position whereby the cyclist takes control of ("hogs") the lane. Usually taken approaching junctions and where being overtaken is undesirable. If a vehicle following does decide to overtake, they will need to move into the adjacent lane, allowing the cyclist plenty of space. Also known as 'taking the lane', 'control' and 'hogging'
The standard road position for the majority of riding on the road, this allows the cyclist to 'share' the lane with other traffic, while still allowing themselves plenty of room to avoid obstacles and not feel squashed. An absolute minimum of 50cm from the left hand edge of the lane (often the kerb), the suggested distance is one metre. This also allows the cyclist a bit of space to move into in the event of a close pass. Also known as 'sharing'
See Secondary
Although there are three official signals, in reality the waved arm 'slowing down' signal is not used as it isn't particularly helpful. A left or right arm, straight out, thumb up, palm forward indicates the cyclist will soon move that way. Road positioning will also give a strong clue, especially where removing a hand from the bars and brakes would be unsafe (e.g. at the bottom of a steep hill)
A position taken when turning right, with the cyclist positioning themself an arm's length (approx one metre) from the right of the lane. Allows the cyclist to wait if necessary while not impeding following traffic which is not turning right. Also shows following drivers that the cyclist is turning, so discourages overtaking which would be very dangerous
Taking the Lane
See Primary